Nature's Chemistry (H)
This unit deals with a lot of organic chemistry, in particular the chemistry of compounds found and used in food and a variety of consumer products.
Use the links below to find the resources you are looking for:
1) Esters, fats and oils
Esters - naming, structural formulae and uses.
Esters condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
Food Science - A series of reactions, one of which is a simple method of making small samples of a few esters..
Finding an Equilibrium Constant - An Advanced higher activity but it is an experiment to make esters and so could be used here.
Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil
Fats and oils
Saturated and unsaturated fats and oils.
Melting points of oils and fats, through intermolecular bonding.
Enzymes as biological catalysts: amino acids and dietary proteins.
Enzymic browning - An investigation into the enzyme catalysed browning of apples.
Condensation reactions to make proteins: amide link & peptide link.
Digestion, enzyme hydrolysis of dietary proteins.
3) Chemistry of cooking
Flavours in foods.
Maillard Reactions - Maillard reactions are responsible for many colours and flavours in foods - this quick and simple experiment demonstrates some of these.
Influence of functional groups on solubility, boiling points and volatility.
Aldehydes as sources of flavour and aroma.
Aldehydes and ketones, straight and branch chained, systematic names, structural formulae and isomers. (for compounds with no more than eight carbon atoms in their longest chain.)
Oxidation reactions of aldehydes and ketones.
Silver mirror (Demo) - Ammoniacal silver nitrate is prepared and this is reduced in a flask by a reducing sugar or aldehyde leading to a coating of silver on its inside.
Effect of heat on proteins, denaturation of proteins.
4) Oxidation of food
Alcohols, branch chained, systematic names, structural formulae and isomers. (for compounds with no more than eight carbon atoms in their longest chain.)
Hydrogen bonding. - diol, triols and the effect of hydrogen bonding on properties of these molecules.
Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, oxidation reactions and products, oxidising agents.
Carboxylic acids, branch chained, systematic names, structural formulae and isomers.
Reactions of carboxylic acids to include reduction and reactions with bases to form salts.
Reaction of oxygen with edible oils.
Oxidative Rancidity - A simple investigation into the oxidation of fats.
Antioxidants. Ion-electron equations for the oxidation of antioxidants.
Colourless orange or blue (Demo) - A demo version of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction as used in the antioxidants workshop.
Antioxidants - This is a range of investigations based around the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction to look at antioxidant levels in fruits and teas (though the method can be adapted for any source of antioxidants).
Vitamin C in Vegetables - Activity to determine the concentration of Vitamin C in fruit and vegetables by titration against DCPIP
5) Soaps, detergents and emulsions
Hydrolysis of esters. Structure of soap ions including covalent tail, (hydrophobic), and an ionic head (hydrophilic)
Cleansing action of soaps.
Production, action and use of detergents.
Emulsion and emulsifiers and their formation and use in food.
Emulsions - A simple investigation into emulsions and emulsifiers.
Essential oils from plants: properties, uses and products.
Oranges are the only fruit - An activity involving (amongst other things) the extraction of D-limonene from orange peel
Terpenes: functional group, structure and use.
Terpenes - A series of activities looking at terpenes
Oxidation of terpenes within plants.
7) Skin care
The damaging effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight on skin and the action of sun-block.
Sunscreens and Cyanotypes - An adaptation of the historic cyanotype photographic process to enable quantitative investigation of uv in sunlight and the effect of sunscreens.
Formation of free radicals in UV light.
Structure, reactivity and reactions of free radicals.
Free radical scavengers in cosmetic products, food products and plastics.
Reaction of free radical scavengers with free radicals to prevent chain reactions
Lip Balm - Pupils design and make their own lip balm product. (This doesn't fit exactly into any subcategory but perhaps a choice of a uv absorber could tie it in to this section)