Chemical changes & structure (N4)

The key areas covered in this Unit are:

rates of reaction — following the rate of a reaction

Colourless orange or blue (Demo) - A demonstration version of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction - as used in antioxidants workshop.

Rhubarb, Rhubarb, Rhubarb (Demo) - Stirriing a beaker of dilute potassium manganate VII, the solution goes clear.

Antioxidants  - This is a range of investigations based around the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction to look at antioxidant levels in fruits and teas (though the method can be adapted for any source of antioxidants).

Rhubarb Rhubarb - An investigation following on from the demo above, Using rhubarb decolourising permanganate to follow the rate of reaction, looking at concentration and surface area (and perhaps temparature)

Thiosulphate acid reaction - microscale - A small scale version of the classic investigation into rates of reaction. Use of small scale and a neutralising bach reduces the production of toxic SO2


atomic structure and bonding related to properties of materials — basic atomic structure including electron arrangement; covalent bonding as electron sharing and ionic bonding of electron transfer; physical properties of substances linked to bonding, chemical formulae of two element compounds; symbol equations from word equations

Iron-sulphur - microscale - a small scale reaction between iron and sulphur followed by an examination of the properties of the sulphides formed.

Formula of magnesium oxide - microscale - Using a bottle-top crucible for a small scale experiment into the mass changes involved in this reaction.

Aluminium - Iodine reaction - (Demonstration). Classic demonstration that leads to clouds of purple iodine vapour as well as the formation of aluminium iodide.


energy changes of chemical reactions — recognising and uses of exothermic and endothermic reactions

Cool Experiment (Demo) - The classic endothermic reaction between barium hydroxide and ammonium thiocyanate.

Genie in a Bottle (Demo) - Exothermic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by potassium iodide.

Hot Stuff (Demo) - The spontaneous exothermic reaction between propan-1,2,3-triol (glycerol) and potassium manganate VII

Light Sticks (Demo) - Using light sticks to show how temperature affects the rate of reaction (this can be done as a class experiment instead of a demonstration).

Methane Bags (Demo) - Burning bags with different ratios of methane:oxygen in them.

Methane Bubbles (Demo) - Preparing and igniting bubbles of methane.

Methane Tin (Demo) - Using old coffee tin with methane flame from hole in top. Air comes in and eventually you get the right ratio for an explosion.

Non-Burning £5 note (Demo) - Burn a note in a ethanol/water mixture. The water keeps it cool enough not to burn.

When a fossil fuel burns (Demo) - Classic demonstration, collection of water and carbon dioxidewhen a Bunsen burns

Whoosh bottle (Demo) - Ignition of alcohol vapour in a 15l water bottle to produce a spectacular 'whoosh'.

Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil.


acids and bases — the effect of soluble oxides on the pH of water; soluble oxides and their environmental impact of non-metal oxide; uses of acids in food and drink and their impact on health; selection of chemicals for salt formation

Acid Rain in the Classroom  - A simple and safe way to show howf CO2, NO2 and SO2 can create acid rain.

Colourful Flowers (Demo) - Make paper 'flowers' soaked in different buffer solutions. Then spray indicator on and you get different colour flowers.

Law of similar shapes (Demo) - A series of simple 'trick' reactions involving acids, bases and phenolphthalein.

Rainbow reaction (Demo) - Form a rainbow of colours to illustrate pH scale with HCl and sodium carbonate along the length of a burette

Spell casting (Demo) - Clear liquid poured into beakers with tiny amounts of acids/bases in - fails to change colour until the last one - phenolphthalein indicator

Vinegar Cheats: Using a simple titration (with pipettes) to find out which samples of vinegar have been watered down.


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