Chemistry in society (H)
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Getting the most from reactants
availability, sustainability and cost of feedstock(s); opportunities for recycling; energy requirements; marketability of by-products; product yield.
Balanced equations, mole ratio(s) of reactants and products.
Determination of quantities of reactants and/or products using balanced equation, the gram formula masses (GFM), mass and moles.
Magnesium Burning - Using bottle tops held with wire instead of a crucible. Mass is measured before and after.
Determination of quantities of reactants and/or products using balanced equations, concentrations and volumes of solutions and/or masses of solutes.
Calculations of mass or volume ( for gases) of products, assuming complete conversion of reactants.
Percentage yield and atom economy.
Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil.
Rocks to Riches - analysis of copper content of 'ores' followed by extraction of copper by leaching and electrowinning.
Limiting reactants and excesses identified
Reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium, altering equilibrium position.
Equilibrium and Le Chatelier (Demo) - the effect of temperature on equilibrium - colour changes of the octahedral hexaaquocobalt (II) cation and the tetrahedral tetrachlorocobaltate (II) anion
Effect of catalyst on equilibrium and the most favourable reaction conditions.
Enthalpy calculations used for industrial processes The specific heat capacity, mass temperature and moles used to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction. Enthalpies of combustion.
Dynamite soap (Demo) - Exploding hydrogen/oxygen bubbles generated by electrolysis of water
Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil. Includes determination of enthalpy.
Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil. Calculations of bond energies of oil and biodiesel can be done to compare heat output as above
Hess's law. Calculation of enthalpy changes by application of Hess's law.
Bond enthalpies for a diatomic molecule
The molar bond enthalpy and mean molar bond enthalpies. Enthalpy changes for gas phase reactions can be calculated using bond enthalpies.
Oxidising or reducing agents
Elements, molecules, group ions and compounds as oxidising and reducing agents, electrochemical series as reduction reactions.
Growing silver trees (Demo) - a displacement reaction with copper wite and silver nitrate that produces dentritic crystals of metallic silver.
Uses of oxidising agents.
Ion-electron for redox, oxidation and reduction equations.
Chromatography - Uses of chromatography.
(son of) Flash Chromatography - Flash chromatography carried out in a syringe can be used to separate samples of food dyes or plant pigments.
Differences in the polarity and/or size of molecules
Volumetric titration - Volumetric analysis for quantitative reactions. Standard solutions, acid base and redox titrations.
Vitamin C Drops Determining the concentration of Vitamin C in a a variety of fruit juices using a simple titration with iodine.
Vitamin C in Vegetables - Determining the concentration of Vitamin C in a vegetables by titration with DCPIP.
Biodiesel - A range of investigations based around the production and testing of Biodiesel from vegetable oil. It includes a back titration with sodium thiosulphate to determine the iodine number.