Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis
Use the links below to find the resources you need:
Non-superimposable mirror image, chiral/enantiomers. Racemic mixture and effect on polarised light. Physical and chemical properties of optical isomers.
Food Science - The link 'Structural sublety' has a simple example of the enantiomers of carvone
Devise synthetic routes, with no more than three steps, from a given reactant to a final product Deduce possible reactions from molecular structures
Bond fission. Homolytic and heterolytic fission.
Electrophiles and nucleophiles. Reactions involving heterolytic bond fission. Nucleophiles or electrophiles as attacking groups.
Curly arrow notation. Use of double-headed and single-headed arrows to show electron movement. The curly arrow shows source and destination of the electron (s).
Haloalkanes. Classification of monohaloalkanes as primary, secondary or tertiary. Monohaloalkanes undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions: alkalis to form alcohols, alcoholic alkoxides to form ethers, ethanolic cyanide to form nitriles which can be hydrolysed to carboxylic acids. Monohaloalkanes can also undergo elimination.reactions to form alkenes.
The reaction mechanism for SN1 and SN2 reactions. SN1 and SN2 reactions using curly arrows and mechanisms with particular attention given to the transition state/intermediate.
The preparation properties, and reactions of alcohols. Preparation from alkenes haloalkanes and reduction of carbonyl compounds using lithium aluminium hydride. Physical properties related to bonding. Dehydration, reaction with metals. Reactions with carboxylic acids and acid chlorides
Finding an Equilibrium Constant - An experiment to to determine experimentally the equilibrium constant for the reaction between methanol and ethanoic acid to form the ester methyl ethanoate.
Ethers. Naming and general structure. Boiling point related to bonding. Preparation using haloalkanes with alkoxides. Chemical and physical properties of ethers linked to molecular size and uses.
Alkenes. Preparation: dehydration of alcohols, base-induced elimination of hydrogen halides from monohaloalkanes. Electrophilic addition reactions: catalytic addition of hydrogen to form alkanes, including mechanisms for addition of halogens to form dihaloalkanes, addition of hydrogen halides according to Markovnikov's rule, to form monohaloalkanes, acid-catalysed addition of water according to Markovnikov's rule, to form alcohols.
Carboxylic acids. Preparation by: oxidising primary alcohols and aldehydes, hydrolysing nitriles, esters, amides. Reactions: formation of salts by reactions with metals or bases, condensation reactions with alcohols to form esters in the presence of an acid catalyst, reaction with amino groups to form amide links, reduction with lithium aluminium hydride to form primary alcohols.
Amine classification as primary, secondary or tertiary Physical properties related to structure. Amines as weak bases and their use in salt formation.
Aromatic hydrocarbons and reactions of benzene. Structure, bonding and stability of the benzene ring. Substitution reactions of benzene (phenyl); alkylation, nitration, sulfonation and halogenation as examples of electrophilic substitution in benzene and other aromatic compounds
Experimental determination of structure
Elemental microanalysis. Determination of the masses of C, H, O, S and N in a sample of an organic compound in order to determine its empirical formula.
Mass spectrometry. Interpretation of fragmentation data to gain structural information.
Infra-red spectroscopy. Interpretation of spectral data to gain structural information.
Interpretation of 1H NMR spectra. Understand how a proton NMR spectrum is produced. Interpretation of spectral data to gain structural information. Draw and analyse low resolution proton NMR spectra and to analyse high resolution proton NMR spectra.
Absorption of visible light by organic molecules
An explanation of why organic compounds are colourless or coloured with reference to molecular orbital theory or conjugated systems.
Terpenes - The experiment 'bromination of tomato juice' is an investigation into the change of colour related to the length of the conjugated system in lycopene from tomatoes.
Chromophores Describe a chromophore and explain its role in the colour exhibited by the compound.
Effect of drugs on the body. Lipinski rule of five.
Classification of drugs. Classification of drugs as agonists or as antagonists.
How drugs work. Identify the types of interaction between drug functional groups and receptor sites. Recognise the pharmacophore in drug molecules